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US Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 December Turkish Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 28 November Armenian Highland, mountainous region of western Asia. It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all of Armenia, and includes southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, and northwestern Iran.

Top Birding Sites of the World. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 26 February The last Anatolian Panther. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey. Standing Committee, 24th meeting, 29 November-3 December , Strasbourg.

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  6. Hagia Sophia - Wikipedia.

World Economic Outlook Database, April Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 28 April Archeological Dig Reshaping Human History". Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 22 June International Airports in Turkey". Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 25 September International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 27 August Its panels are covered in fruits and fish motives. The door opens into a space that was used as a venue for solemn meetings and important resolutions of patriarchate officials.

The decorations are of reliefs of geometric shapes as well as plants that are believed to have come from a pagan temple in Tarsus, Mersin now modern-day Turkey. It was incorporated into the building by Emperor Theophilos in AD where it is placed in the south exit in the inner narthex. The Emperor Door is the door that would be used solely by the Emperor as well as his personal bodyguard and retinue. It is the largest door in the Hagia Sophia and has been dated to the 6th century.

It is about 7 meters long and Eastern Roman sources say it was made with wood from Noah's Ark. At the northwest of the building, there is a column with a hole in the middle covered by bronze plates. This column goes by different names; the perspiring column, the wishing column, the sweating column or the crying column. The column is said to be damp when touched and have supernatural powers. Gregory the Miracle Worker appeared near the column in the year , it has been moist.

It is believed that touching the moisture cures many illnesses. The first mosaics which adorned the church were only completed during the reign of Justin II. Most of the mosaics, however, were completed after the end of the periods of Byzantine Iconoclasm in AD. During the Sack of Constantinople in , the Latin Crusaders vandalized valuable items in every important Byzantine structure of the city, including the golden mosaics of the Hagia Sophia.

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Many of these items were shipped to Venice , whose Doge , Enrico Dandolo , had organized the invasion and sack of Constantinople after an agreement with Prince Alexios Angelos , the son of a deposed Byzantine emperor. Following the building's conversion into a mosque in , many of its mosaics were covered with plaster, due to Islam's ban on representational imagery.

This process was not completed at once, and reports exist from the 17th century in which travelers note that they could still see Christian images in the former church. The Fossatis restored the mosaics of the two hexapteryga singular Greek: The Fossati records are the primary sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in the Istanbul earthquake. These include a mosaic over a now-unidentified Door of the Poor , a large image of a jewel-encrusted cross , and a large number of images of angels , saints , patriarchs , and church fathers.

Most of the missing images were located in the building's two tympana. One mosaic they documented is Christ Pantocrator in a circle, which would indicate it to be a ceiling mosaic, possibly even of the main dome which was later covered and painted over with Islamic calligraphy that expounds God as the light of the universe.

A large number of mosaics were uncovered in the s by a team from the Byzantine Institute of America led by Thomas Whittemore. The team chose to let a number of simple cross images remain covered by plaster but uncovered all major mosaics found. In , The National Technical University of Athens has begun to use Non Destructive Techniques along with infrared technology to scan walls of the Hagia Sophia to locate mosaics that have been previously covered with plaster.

The National Technical University of Athens is using infrared technology, to assess the damage mosaics have taken within the Hagia Sophia beneath the plaster. The National Technical University of Athens uses categories such as water intrusion to determine a mosaics current state of condition. Because of its long history as both a church and a mosque, a particular challenge arises in the restoration process. Christian iconographic mosaics can be uncovered, but often at the expense of important and historic Islamic art.

Restorers have attempted to maintain a balance between both Christian and Islamic cultures. In particular, much controversy rests upon whether the Islamic calligraphy on the dome of the cathedral should be removed, in order to permit the underlying Pantocrator mosaic of Christ as Master of the World, to be exhibited assuming the mosaic still exists.

The Hagia Sophia has been a victim to natural disasters that have caused deterioration to the buildings structure and walls. The deterioration of the Hagia Sophia's walls can be directly relate to salt crystallization. The crystallization of salt is due to an intrusion of rainwater that is at fault for the Hagia Sophia's deteriorating inner and outer walls.

Diverting excess rainwater is the main solution to solve the deteriorating walls at the Hagia Sophia. Built between a subsurface structure under the Hagia Sophia has been under investigation, using LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters to determine the depth of the subsurface structure and to discover other hidden cavities beneath the Hagia Sophia.

The hidden cavities have also acted as a support system against earthquakes. With these findings using the LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters, it was also discovered that the Hagia Sophia's foundation is built on a slope of natural rock. The Imperial Gate mosaic is located in the tympanum above that gate, which was used only by the emperors when entering the church.

Based on style analysis, it has been dated to the late 9th or early 10th century. The emperor with a nimbus or halo could possibly represent emperor Leo VI the Wise or his son Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus bowing down before Christ Pantocrator, seated on a jeweled throne, giving His blessing and holding in His left hand an open book.

I am the light of the world". The southwestern entrance mosaic, situated in the tympanum of the southwestern entrance, dates from the reign of Basil II. The Virgin sits on a throne without a back, her feet resting on a pedestal, embellished with precious stones.

The Child Christ sits on her lap, giving His blessing and holding a scroll in His left hand. On her left side stands emperor Constantine in ceremonial attire, presenting a model of the city to Mary. The inscription next to him says: On her right side stands emperor Justinian I , offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. The Virgin and Child mosaic was the first of the post-iconoclastic mosaics. This mosaic is situated in a high location on the half dome of the apse. Mary is sitting on a throne without a back, holding the Child Jesus on her lap. Her feet rest on a pedestal.

Both the pedestal and the throne are adorned with precious stones. The portraits of the archangels Gabriel and Michael largely destroyed in the bema of the arch also date from the 9th century. The mosaics are set against the original golden background of the 6th century. These mosaics were believed to be a reconstruction of the mosaics of the 6th century that were previously destroyed during the iconoclastic era by the Byzantines of that time, as represented in the inaugural sermon by the patriarch Photios. However, no record of figurative decoration of Hagia Sophia exists before this time. The Emperor Alexander mosaic is not easy to find for the first-time visitor, located on the second floor in a dark corner of the ceiling.

It depicts Emperor Alexander in full regalia, holding a scroll in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left. A drawing by the Fossatis showed that the mosaic survived until and that Thomas Whittemore , founder of the Byzantine Institute of America who was granted permission to preserve the mosaics, assumed that it had been destroyed in the earthquake of Eight years after his death, the mosaic was discovered in largely through the researches of Robert Van Nice.

Unlike most of the other mosaics in Hagia Sophia, which had been covered over by ordinary plaster, the Alexander mosaic was simply painted over and reflected the surrounding mosaic patterns and thus was well hidden. The Empress Zoe mosaic on the eastern wall of the southern gallery date from the 11th century. Christ Pantocrator, clad in the dark blue robe as is the custom in Byzantine art , is seated in the middle against a golden background, giving His blessing with the right hand and holding the Bible in His left hand.

He is offering a purse, as a symbol of donation, he made to the church, while she is holding a scroll, symbol of the donations she made. The inscription over the head of the emperor says: The inscription over the head of the empress reads as follows: The previous heads have been scraped off and replaced by the three present ones. Another theory is that this mosaic was made for an earlier emperor and empress, with their heads changed into the present ones. The Comnenus mosaic, also located on the eastern wall of the southern gallery, dates from The Virgin Mary is standing in the middle, depicted, as usual in Byzantine art, in a dark blue gown.

She holds the Child Christ on her lap. He gives His blessing with His right hand while holding a scroll in His left hand. On her right side stands emperor John II Comnenus , represented in a garb embellished with precious stones. He holds a purse, symbol of an imperial donation to the church. Empress Irene stands on the left side of the Virgin, wearing ceremonial garments and offering a document. Their eldest son Alexius Comnenus is represented on an adjacent pilaster.

He is shown as a beardless youth, probably representing his appearance at his coronation aged seventeen. In this panel, one can already see a difference with the Empress Zoe mosaic that is one century older. There is a more realistic expression in the portraits instead of an idealized representation.

The Empress, Saint Irene born Piroska , daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary is shown with plaited blond hair, rosy cheeks, and grey eyes, revealing her Hungarian descent.

The emperor is depicted in a dignified manner. It was commissioned to mark the end of 57 years of Roman Catholic use and the return to the Orthodox faith. It is the third panel situated in the imperial enclosure of the upper galleries. It is widely considered the finest in Hagia Sophia, because of the softness of the features, the humane expressions and the tones of the mosaic. The style is close to that of the Italian painters of the late 13th or early 14th century, such as Duccio. In this panel the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist Ioannes Prodromos , both shown in three-quarters profile, are imploring the intercession of Christ Pantocrator for humanity on Judgment Day.

The bottom part of this mosaic is badly deteriorated. The northern tympanum mosaics feature various saints. They have been able to survive due to the very high and unreachable location. They depict Saints John Chrysostom and Ignatius the Younger standing, clothed in white robes with crosses, and holding richly jeweled Holy Bibles.

The names of each saint are given around the figures in Greek, in order to enable an identification for the visitor. The other mosaics in the other tympana have not survived probably due to the frequent earthquakes as opposed to any deliberate destruction by the Ottoman conquerors. This features four unidentical angel figures. It is believed that these on headed six winged angels, also known as seraphim, protect the lords throne in heaven. There are angels in the east composed in mosaics as where the ones in the west were damaged during the Eastern Roman Period, they have been renewed as fresco.

During the ottoman period the angels faces were covered with metallic lids in the shape of stars, but were removed to reveal the faces in during renovations. Mosaic in the northern tympanum depicting Saint John Chrysostom. Another drawing by the Fossati brothers depicting mosaic of six patriarchs in the southern tympanum.

Interior view of the Hagia Sophia, showing Islamic elements on the top of the main dome annotations. Haghia Sofia from Adriaan Reland — Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen , Hagia Sophia during its time as a mosque. Illustration by Gaspare Fossati and Louis Haghe from Interior panorama of the Hagia Sophia annotations. The face of the Hexapterygon six-winged angel on the northeast pendentive upper left , discovered but covered again by Gaspare Fossati during its restoration, is visible again annotations.

Many religious structures have been modeled on the Hagia Sophia's core structure of a large central dome resting on pendentives and buttressed by two semi-domes. In many cases, Ottoman architects preferred to surround the central dome with four semi-domes rather than two. Like the original plan of the Hagia Sophia, many of these mosques are also entered through a colonnaded courtyard.

However, the courtyard of the Hagia Sophia no longer exists. Many Neo-Byzantine churches are modeled on the Hagia Sophia. The marble revetment also closely mimics the source work. Like Ottoman mosques, many churches based on the Hagia Sophia include four semi-domes rather than two, such as the Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade. Several churches combine the layout of the Hagia Sophia with a Latin cross plan. Louis , where the transept is formed by two semi-domes surrounding the main dome. This church also closely emulates the column capitals and mosaic styles of the Hagia Sophia.

Both include four semi-domes, but the two lateral semi-domes are very shallow. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the steamship known by that name, see SS Sussex. For other uses, see Hagia Sophia disambiguation. Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Loge of the Empress.

The columns are made of green Thessalian stone. Lustration urn from Pergamon. Mosaics with geometric pattern decorate the upper imperial gallery.